I'm also thinking this route also, strip the topical and then spend some time with diamond pads.The stain should be fine since the stain penetrates the concrete unlike the topical that was applied. You may have to respin that with diamonds to get the sheen as close to perfect as possible. A little hard to tell from the pics.
Do a test area!!!! If it was stained with an acid stain you'll be fine. If it was a water base stain it can all bleed out! I just ran into this problem in December.
The stain was put down first . Try some of your stripper at full strength and let it set there you know if the stain is coming offStill researching, the owner doesn't know if a wax or sealer was put down after the stain. Says he will try and find out. The stain color is Amish Amber.
In one room there are foot prints all over a 10+10 area. (Dont have a pic, sry).
Just worried about stain loss if I strip this with stripper. I did a search here on TMF, found a few good courses of action to take, just need to test first.