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Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind, 1751

CCWorks

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Did you people that went to school ever read any parts of this Document?

I was harassed in school a lot (1972) because of my race, a school I was bussed too, 7 to 10 miles away from the home I stayed at.
I also could see a school from my home's bed room window, hear the football games and I could walk to that school maybe 1 mile, (a middle / high school) So school was not what I enjoyed or did I stay in school. Got hooked on drugs at age 12 or 13, illegal drugs was all over the area.
My home life was also a very bad experience.


Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind
Printed in [William Clarke], Observations On the late and present Conduct of the French, with Regard to their Encroachments upon the British Colonies in North America. … To which is added, wrote by another Hand; Observations concerning the Increase of Mankind, Peopling of Countries,&c. Boston: Printed and Sold by S. Kneeland in Queen-Street. 1755. (Yale University Library)

The “immediate occasion” for writing this essay, according to Van Doren,6 was the British Iron Act of 1750, which prohibited the erection of additional slitting and rolling mills, plating forges, and steel furnaces in the American colonies.7 While English ironmasters rejoiced in the protection the law afforded them, a few farsighted Britons and most Americans appreciated that the act would curb colonial growth at just the moment when Britain and France were engaged in a climactic struggle for possession of North America.8

Franklin wrote the essay in 1751. In the following spring he sent a copy to Peter Collinson and Richard Jackson, who were “greatly entertained” by it;9 and Jackson eventually sent Franklin a full criticism of it.1 Collinson hoped it would be published: “I don’t find anyone has hit it off so well”;2 and Dr. John Perkins of Boston, who also received a copy, judged it such an “informing Piece” that it “should be read and well considered by every Englishman who wishes well to his Country.”3 Not until late in 1754, however, did Franklin consent to its publication: it appeared the next year as an appendix to William Clarke’s Observations.4 The pamphlet, including Franklin’s essay, was reprinted at once in London; and the essay alone, with some excisions, appeared in the Gentleman’s Magazine for November 1755 and the Scots Magazine for April 1756.5 In 1760 and 1761 it was printed, also with excisions, as an appendix to London, Dublin, Boston, and Philadelphia editions of Franklin’s Interest of Great Britain Considered; and it was reprinted in part in the London Chronicle, May 20, 1760. Franklin included it in the fourth edition of his Experiments and Observations on Electricity, 1769. Thus Franklin’s ideas on the growth of population entered the current of English economic thought. They had a demonstrable influence on Thomas Malthus, who quoted Franklin approvingly and accepted his surprisingly accurate estimate of the rate of population increase in America, and on Francis Place, who studied these and others of Franklin’s ideas on population. Adam Smith is known to have had two copies of the essay in his library.6

Observations concerning the Increase of Mankind,
Peopling of Countries, &c.

1. Tables of the Proportion of Marriages to Births, of Deaths to Births, of Marriages to the Numbers of Inhabitants, &c. form’d on Observaions made upon the Bills of Mortality, Christnings, &c. of populous Cities, will not suit Countries; nor will Tables form’d on Observations made on full settled old Countries, as Europe, suit new Countries, as America.

2. For People increase in Proportion to the Number of Marriages, and that is greater in Proportion to the Ease and Convenience of supporting a Family. When Families can be easily supported, more Persons marry, and earlier in Life.

3. In Cities, where all Trades, Occupations and Offices are full, many delay marrying, till they can see how to bear the Charges of a Family; which Charges are greater in Cities, as Luxury is more common: many live single during Life, and continue Servants to Families, Journeymen to Trades, &c. hence Cities do not by natural Generation supply themselves with Inhabitants; the Deaths are more than the Births.

4. In Countries full settled, the Case must be nearly the same; all Lands being occupied and improved to the Heighth: those who cannot get Land, must Labour for others that have it; when Labourers are plenty, their Wages will be low; by low Wages a Family is supported with Difficulty; this Difficulty deters many from Marriage, who therefore long continue Servants and single. Only as the Cities take Supplies of People from the Country, and thereby make a little more Room in the Country; Marriage is a little more incourag’d there, and the Births exceed the Deaths.

5. Europe is generally full settled with Husbandmen, Manufacturers, &c. and therefore cannot now much increase in People: America is chiefly occupied by Indians, who subsist mostly by Hunting. But as the Hunter, of all Men, requires the greatest Quantity of Land from whence to draw his Subsistence, (the Husbandman subsisting on much less, the Gardner on still less, and the Manufacturer requiring least of all), The Europeans found America as fully settled as it well could be by Hunters; yet these having large Tracks, were easily prevail’d on to part with Portions of Territory to the new Comers, who did not much interfere with the Natives in Hunting, and furnish’d them with many Things they wanted.

6. Land being thus plenty in America, and so cheap as that a labouring Man, that understands Husbandry, can in a short Time save Money enough to purchase a Piece of new Land sufficient for a Plantation, whereon he may subsist a Family; such are not afraid to marry; for if they even look far enough forward to consider how their Children when grown up are to be provided for, they see that more Land is to be had at Rates equally easy, all Circumstances considered.

7. Hence Marriages in America are more general, and more generally early, than in Europe. And if it is reckoned there, that there is but one Marriage per Annum among 100 Persons, perhaps we may here reckon two; and if in Europe they have but 4 Births to a Marriage (many of their Marriages being late) we may here reckon 8, of which if one half grow up, and our Marriages are made, reckoning one with another at 20 Years of Age, our People must at least be doubled every 20 Years.

8. But notwithstanding this Increase, so vast is the Territory of North-America, that it will require many Ages to settle it fully; and till it is fully settled, Labour will never be cheap here, where no Man continues long a Labourer for others, but gets a Plantation of his own, no Man continues long a Journeyman to a Trade, but goes among those new Settlers, and sets up for himself, &c. Hence Labour is no cheaper now, in Pennsylvania, than it was 30 Years ago, tho’ so many Thousand labouring People have been imported.

9. The Danger therefore of these Colonies interfering with their Mother Country in Trades that depend on Labour, Manufactures, &c. is too remote to require the Attention of Great-Britain.

10. But in Proportion to the Increase of the Colonies, a vast Demand is growing for British Manufactures, a glorious Market wholly in the Power of Britain, in which Foreigners cannot interfere, which will increase in a short Time even beyond her Power of supplying, tho’ her whole Trade should be to her Colonies: Therefore Britain should not too much restrain Manufactures in her Colonies. A wise and good Mother will not do it. To distress, is to weaken, and weakening the Children, weakens the whole Family.7

11. Besides if the Manufactures of Britain (by Reason of the American Demands) should rise too high in Price, Foreigners who can sell cheaper will drive her Merchants out of Foreign Markets; Foreign Manufactures will thereby be encouraged and increased, and consequently foreign Nations, perhaps her Rivals in Power, grow more populous and more powerful; while her own Colonies, kept too low, are unable to assist her, or add to her Strength.8

12. ’Tis an ill-grounded Opinion that by the Labour of Slaves, America may possibly vie in Cheapness of Manufactures with Britain. The Labour of Slaves can never be so cheap here as the Labour of working Men is in Britain. Any one may compute it. Interest of Money is in the Colonies from 6 to 10 per Cent. Slaves one with another cost £30 Sterling per Head. Reckon then the Interest of the first Purchase of a Slave, the Insurance or Risque on his Life, his Cloathing and Diet, Expences in his Sickness and Loss of Time, Loss by his Neglect of Business (Neglect is natural to the Man who is not to be benefited by his own Care or Diligence), Expence of a Driver to keep him at Work, and his Pilfering from Time to Time, almost every Slave being by Nature9 a Thief, and compare the whole Amount with the Wages of a Manufacturer of Iron or Wool in England, you will see that Labour is much cheaper there than it ever can be by Negroes here. Why then will Americans purchase Slaves? Because Slaves may be kept as long as a Man pleases, or has Occasion for their Labour; while hired Men are continually leaving their Master (often in the midst of his Business,) and setting up for themselves. § 8.

13. As the Increase of People depends on the Encouragement of Marriages, the following Things must diminish a Nation, viz.

1. The being conquered; for the Conquerors will engross as many Offices, and exact as much Tribute or Profit on the Labour of the conquered, as will maintain them in their new Establishment, and this diminishing the Subsistence of the Natives discourages their Marriages, and so gradually diminishes them, while the Foreigners increase. 2. Loss of Territory. Thus the Britons being driven into Wales, and crowded together in a barren Country insufficient to support such great Numbers, diminished ’till the People bore a Proportion to the Produce, while the Saxons increas’d on their abandoned Lands; ’till the Island became full of English. And were the English now driven into Wales by some foreign Nation, there would in a few Years be no more Englishmen in Britain, than there are now People in Wales. 3. Loss of Trade. Manufactures exported, draw Subsistence from Foreign Countries for Numbers; who are thereby enabled to marry and raise Families. If the Nation be deprived of any Branch of Trade, and no new Employment is found for the People occupy’d in that Branch, it will also be soon deprived of so many People. 4. Loss of Food. Suppose a Nation has a Fishery, which not only employs great Numbers, but makes the Food and Subsistence of the People cheaper; If another Nation becomes Master of the Seas, and prevents the Fishery, the People will diminish in Proportion as the Loss of Employ, and Dearness of Provision, makes it more difficult to subsist a Family. 5. Bad Government and insecure Property. People not only leave such a Country, and settling Abroad incorporate with other Nations, lose their native Language, and become Foreigners; but the Industry of those that remain being discourag’d, the Quantity of Subsistence in the Country is lessen’d, and the Support of a Family becomes more difficult. So heavy Taxes tend to diminish a People. 6. The Introduction of Slaves. The Negroes brought into the English Sugar Islands, have greatly diminish’d the Whites there; the Poor are by this Means depriv’d of Employment, while a few Families acquire vast Estates; which they spend on Foreign Luxuries, and educating their Children in the Habit of those Luxuries; the same Income is needed for the Support of one that might have maintain’d 100. The Whites who have Slaves, not labouring, are enfeebled, and therefore not so generally prolific; the Slaves being work’d too hard, and ill fed, their Constitutions are broken, and the Deaths among them are more than the Births; so that a continual Supply is needed from Africa. The Northern Colonies having few Slaves increase in Whites. Slaves also pejorate the Families that use them; the white Children become proud, disgusted with Labour, and being educated in Idleness, are rendered unfit to get a Living by Industry.

14. Hence the Prince that acquires new Territory, if he finds it vacant, or removes the Natives to give his own People Room; the Legislator that makes effectual Laws for promoting of Trade, increasing Employment, improving Land by more or better Tillage; providing more Food by Fisheries; securing Property, &c. and the Man that invents new Trades, Arts or Manufactures, or new Improvements in Husbandry, may be properly called Fathers of their Nation, as they are the Cause of the Generation of Multitudes, by the Encouragement they afford to Marriage.

15. As to Privileges granted to the married, (such as the Jus trium Liberorum1 among the Romans), they may hasten the filling of a Country that has been thinned by War or Pestilence, or that has otherwise vacant Territory; but cannot increase a People beyond the Means provided for their Subsistence.

16. Foreign Luxuries and needless Manufactures imported and used in a Nation, do, by the same Reasoning, increase the People of the Nation that furnishes them, and diminish the People of the Nation that uses them. Laws therefore that prevent such Importations, and on the contrary promote the Exportation of Manufactures to be consumed in Foreign Countries, may be called (with Respect to the People that make them) generative Laws, as by increasing Subsistence they encourage Marriage. Such Laws likewise strengthen a Country, doubly, by increasing its own People and diminishing its Neighbours.

17. Some European Nations prudently refuse to consume the Manufactures of East-India. They should likewise forbid them to their Colonies; for the Gain to the Merchant, is not to be compar’d with the Loss by this Means of People to the Nation.

18. Home Luxury in the Great, increases the Nation’s Manufacturers employ’d by it, who are many, and only tends to diminish the Families that indulge in it, who are few. The greater the common fashionable Expence of any Rank of People, the more cautious they are of Marriage. Therefore Luxury should never be suffer’d to become common.

19. The great Increase of Offspring in particular Families, is not always owing to greater Fecundity of Nature, but sometimes to Examples of Industry in the Heads, and industrious Education; by which the Children are enabled to provide better for themselves, and their marrying early, is encouraged from the Prospect of good Subsistence.

20. If there be a Sect therefore, in our Nation, that regard Frugality and Industry as religious Duties, and educate their Children therein, more than others commonly do; such Sect must consequently increase more by natural Generation, than any other Sect in Britain.

21. The Importation of Foreigners into a Country that has as many Inhabitants as the present Employments and Provisions for Subsistence will bear; will be in the End no Increase of People; unless the New Comers have more Industry and Frugality than the Natives, and then they will provide more Subsistence, and increase in the Country; but they will gradually eat the Natives out. Nor is it necessary to bring in Foreigners to fill up any occasional Vacancy in a Country; for such Vacancy (if the Laws are good, § 14, 16) will soon be filled by natural Generation. Who can now find the Vacancy made in Sweden, France or other Warlike Nations, by the Plague of Heroism 40 Years ago; in France, by the Expulsion of the Protestants; in England, by the Settlement of her Colonies; or in Guinea, by 100 Years Exportation of Slaves, that has blacken’d half America? The thinness of Inhabitants in Spain is owing to National Pride and Idleness, and other Causes, rather than to the Expulsion of the Moors, or to the making of new Settlements.

22. There is in short, no Bound to the prolific Nature of Plants or Animals, but what is made by their crowding and interfering with each others Means of Subsistence. Was the Face of the Earth vacant of other Plants, it might be gradually sowed and overspread with one Kind only; as, for Instance, with Fennel; and were it empty of other Inhabitants, it might in a few Ages be replenish’d from one Nation only; as, for Instance, with Englishmen. Thus there are suppos’d to be now upwards of One Million English Souls in North-America, (tho’ ’tis thought scarce 80,000 have been brought over Sea) and yet perhaps there is not one the fewer in Britain, but rather many more, on Account of the Employment the Colonies afford to Manufacturers at Home. This Million doubling, suppose but once in 25 Years, will in another Century be more than the People of England, and the greatest Number of Englishmen will be on this Side the Water. What an Accession of Power to the British Empire by Sea as well as Land! What Increase of Trade and Navigation! What Numbers of Ships and Seamen! We have been here but little more than 100 Years, and yet the Force of our Privateers in the late War, united, was greater, both in Men and Guns, than that of the whole British Navy in Queen Elizabeth’s Time.2 How important an Affair then to Britain, is the present Treaty for settling the Bounds between her Colonies and the French,3 and how careful should she be to secure Room enough, since on the Room depends so much the Increase of her People?

23. In fine, A Nation well regulated is like a Polypus; take away a Limb, its Place is soon supply’d; cut it in two, and each deficient Part shall speedily grow out of the Part remaining.4 Thus if you have Room and Subsistence enough, as you may by dividing, make ten Polypes out of one, you may of one make ten Nations, equally populous and powerful; or rather, increase a Nation ten fold in Numbers and Strength.5

And since Detachments of English from Britain sent to America, will have their Places at Home so soon supply’d and increase so largely here; why should the Palatine Boors be suffered to swarm into our Settlements, and by herding together establish their Language and Manners to the Exclusion of ours? Why should Pennsylvania, founded by the English, become a Colony of Aliens, who will shortly be so numerous as to Germanize us instead of our Anglifying them, and will never adopt our Language or Customs, any more than they can acquire our Complexion.

24. Which leads me to add one Remark: That the Number of purely white People in the World is proportionably very small. All Africa is black or tawny. Asia chiefly tawny. America (exclusive of the new Comers) wholly so. And in Europe, the Spaniards, Italians, French, Russians and Swedes, are generally of what we call a swarthy Complexion; as are the Germans also, the Saxons only excepted, who with the English, make the principal Body of White People on the Face of the Earth. I could wish their Numbers were increased. And while we are, as I may call it, Scouring our Planet, by clearing America of Woods, and so making this Side of our Globe reflect a brighter Light to the Eyes of Inhabitants in Mars or Venus, why should we in the Sight of Superior Beings, darken its People? why increase the Sons of Africa, by Planting them in America, where we have so fair an Opportunity, by excluding all Blacks and Tawneys, of increasing the lovely White and Red? But perhaps I am partial to the Complexion of my Country, for such Kind of Partiality is natural to Mankind.

[Note numbering follows the Franklin Papers source.]

6. Franklin, p. 216.

7. Lawrence H. Gipson, The British Empire before the American Revolution III (Caldwell, Idaho, 1936), 204–32.

8. See the letter of Robert Charles, later agent of Pennsylvania in London, to Thomas Lawrence, Feb. 10, 1750/51, which comments on the Iron Act, the union of interests of the northern colonies and Great Britain, and threats of French expansion, and requests a “Calculation of all the present numbers and Strength of the Continent, and … of the French.” PMHB, VII (1883), 232–3.

9. See below, pp. 319–20.

1. Under date of June 17, 1755, below.

2. See below, p. 358.

3. See below, p. 358.

4. Clarke was a close friend of Perkins, as also of Governor Shirley, who warmly appreciated BF.

5. Both magazines named BF as the author, which neither the Boston nor London editions of 1755 did. The last sentence was omitted from sections 13, 16, 21, and 23 in the magazines. The three exclamatory sentences in section 22 and all of section 24 were also omitted.

6. Useful discussions of BF’s essay include: Lewis J. Carey, Franklin’s Economic Views (Garden City, N.Y., 1928), pp. 46–60; Alfred Owen Aldridge, “Franklin as Demographer,” Jour. Econ. Hist., IX (1949–50), 25–44; Norman E. Himes, “Benjamin Franklin on Population: A Re-examination with Special Reference to the Influence of Franklin on Francis Place,” Econ. Hist., III (1934–37), 388–98; and Conway Zirkle, “Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Malthus and the United States Census,” Isis, XLVIII (1957), 58–62. Dubourg included Franklin’s essay (from the 1760 London edition) in his translation of John Dickinson’s Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, 1769; and a MS translation, noting the 1761 London edition, endorsed by Mirabeau, is in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.

7. “Therefore … weaken the whole family” is omitted from Exper. and Obser., 1769 edition.

8. The paragraph is omitted from Exper. and Obser., 1769 edition.

9. In Exper. and Obser., 1769 edition: “from the nature of slavery” in place of “by Nature.”

1. The Lex Papia Poppaea (usually considered with the Lex Julia de maritandis ordinibus) allowed mothers of three children to wear the stola as a mark of distinction, exempted them from tutelage, gave them the right to inherit from their children, and conferred other civil rights. Carey, Franklin’s Economic Views, p. 53 n; Bouvier’s Law Dictionary (1934 edit.), p. 299.

2. Compare above, II, 453.

3. The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1748.

4. Compare this reference to the polypus with that in Poor Richard’s Almanack for 1751 (above, p. 93).

5. The remainder of this section and all the next were omitted from the reprintings of 1760 and 1761 and from Exper. and Obser., 1769 edition. Lawrence C. Wroth, An American Bookshelf, 1755 (Phila., 1934), pp. 42–3. But they were remembered and revived by BF’s political enemies in 1764.

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Source ProjectFranklin PapersTitleObservations Concerning the Increase of Mankind, 1751AuthorFranklin, BenjaminDate1751
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Cite as“Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind, 1751,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Franklin/01-04-02-0080. [Original source: The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, vol. 4, July 1, 1750, through June 30, 1753, ed. Leonard W. Labaree. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1961, pp. 225–234.]
 
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Mama Fen

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"And while we are, as I may call it, Scouring our Planet, by clearing America of Woods, and so making this Side of our Globe reflect a brighter Light to the Eyes of Inhabitants in Mars or Venus, why should we in the Sight of Superior Beings, darken its People? "

I'll go tell the environmentalists they've got it all wrong - we're SUPPOSED to eradicate all the trees so the Martians can look down and see us from their planet, and judge our fair skin, and call us pretty.

Except that, without trees to shade us, we will all eventually turn brown so we don't die of skin cancer. That is, if we haven't already choked to death from carbon dioxide poisoning.

Hmmm. Maybe he shoulda thought that through a bit better...
 
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CCWorks

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"And while we are, as I may call it, Scouring our Planet, by clearing America of Woods, and so making this Side of our Globe reflect a brighter Light to the Eyes of Inhabitants in Mars or Venus, why should we in the Sight of Superior Beings, darken its People? "

I'll go tell the environmentalists they've got it all wrong - we're SUPPOSED to eradicate all the trees so the Martians can look down and see us from their planet, and judge our fair skin, and call us pretty.

Except that, without trees to shade us, we will all eventually turn brown so we don't die of skin cancer. That is, if we haven't already choked to death from carbon dioxide poisoning.

Hmmm. Maybe he shoulda thought that through a bit better...


I believe the trees in America, are hiding lakes of pure mineral rich water.
Food energy from the sun, as the tree decays, the tree is mineral rich food for the soil to grow good heath food for its people.

"A fully grown tree may lose several hundred gallons of water through its leaves on a hot, dry day."

A forest will cool the earth. As water holds a coolant called water and also provides heat in the cooler months as water holds heat in water.


Water mostly enters a tree through the roots by osmosis and any dissolved mineral nutrients will travel with it upward through the inner bark's xylem (using capillary action) and into the leaves. These traveling nutrients then feed the tree through the process of leaf photosynthesis. This is a process that converts light energy, usually from the Sun, into chemical energy that can be later released to fuel an organisms' activities including growth.



Trees supply leaves with water because of a decrease in hydrostatic or water pressure into upper, leaf-bearing parts called crowns or canopies. This hydrostatic pressure difference "lifts" the water to the leaves. Ninety percent of the tree's water is eventually dispersed and released from leaf stomata.



This stoma is an opening or pore that is used for gas exchange. They are mostly found on the under-surface of plant leaves. Air also enters the plant through these openings. The carbon dioxide in the air entering the stoma is used in photosynthesis. Some of the oxygen produced is used in respiration through evaporation, into the atmosphere. That beneficial loss of water from plants is called transpiration.


Amounts of Water Trees Use

A fully grown tree may lose several hundred gallons of water through its leaves on a hot, dry day. The same tree will lose nearly no water on wet, cold, winter days, so water loss is directly related to temperature and humidity. Another way to say this is that almost all water that enters a tree's roots is lost to the atmosphere but the 10% that remains keeps the living tree system healthy and maintains growth.



Evaporation of water from the upper parts of trees especially leaves but also stems, flowers and roots can add to a tree's water loss. Certain tree species are more efficient in managing their rate of water loss and are normally found naturally on drier sites.


Volumes of Water Trees Use

An average maturing tree under optimal conditions can transport up to 10,000 gallons of water only to capture about 1,000 usable gallons for the production of food and adding to its biomass. This is called the transpiration ratio, the ratio of the mass of water transpired to the mass of dry matter produced.



Depending on the efficiency of the plant or tree species, it may take as little as 200 pounds (24 gallons) of water to 1,000 pounds (120 gallons) to make a pound of dry matter. A single acre of forest land, during the course of a growing season, can add 4 tons of biomass but uses 4,000 tons of water to do so.


Osmosis and Hydrostatic Pressure

Roots take advantage of "pressures" when water and its solutions are unequal. The key to remember about osmosis is that water flows from the solution with the lower solute concentration (the soil) into the solution with higher solute concentration (the root).



Water tends to move to regions of negative hydrostatic pressure gradients. Water uptake by plant root osmosis creates a more negative hydrostatic pressure potential near the root surface. Tree roots sense water (less negative water potential) and growth is directed towards water (hydrotropism).


Transpiration Runs the Show

Transpiration is the evaporation of water from trees out and into the Earth's atmosphere. Leaf transpiration occurs through pores called stomata, and at a necessary "cost", displaces of much of its valuable water into the atmosphere. These stomata are designed to allow the carbon dioxide gas to exchange from air to assist in photosynthesis that then creates the fuel for growth.



We need to remember that transpiration cools trees and every organism around it. Transpiration also helps to cause that massive flow of mineral nutrients and water from roots to shoots which is caused by a decrease in hydrostatic (water) pressure. This loss of pressure is caused by water evaporating from the stomata into the atmosphere and the beat goes on.
 
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CCWorks

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To Scalp a man alive was invited by Egyptian Pharos.

I say this, do to the history I was told, as the article from Franklin talks about history and great wars, from Europe.

Just thought I will try to educate you to truth.

$60 dollars or pounds was a hell of a lot of money back in them days....

During Queen Anne's War, by 1703, the Massachusetts Bay Colony was offering $60 for each native scalp. During Father Rale's War (1722–1725), on August 8, 1722, Massachusetts put a bounty on native families. Ranger John Lovewell is known to have conducted scalp-hunting expeditions, the most famous being the Battle of Pequawket in New Hampshire.


350_sword.jpg


Sea People were utterly defeated. The Harris Papyrus states:
As for those who reached my frontier, their seed is not, their heart and their soul are finished forever and ever.




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Deuteronomy 30:6 And the LORD your God will circumcise your heart, and the heart of your seed, to love the LORD your God with all your heart.


vastateseal.jpg
 
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CCWorks

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This seems strange...

The School I could see from my home in the 70s has moved.

Today it is like a Collage Campus. Supper huge, new and clean looking.

This Falcon is on a memorial of Ramses III Tomb, Reminds me of the School I could see from my house.

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East Kentwood Public School Logo and Facebook page.





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Students from over 60 countries graduate from East Kentwood High School

East Kentwood's graduation ceremony showcased its diversity.

KENTWOOD, Mich. — East Kentwood High School—one of the biggest schools in West Michigan—graduated 608 students on Friday night.




East Kentwood Principal Omar Bakri did something unique to highlight the school's diversity.

They are saying the school has diversity.

As I was posting this post , I noticed how many African males there are and then all the white female.
 

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CCWorks

Premium VIP
Jan 3, 2010
11,054
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Real Name
Greg
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This seems strange...

The School I could see from my home in the 70s has moved.

Today it is like a Collage Campus. Supper huge, new and clean looking.

This Falcon is on a memorial of Ramses III Tomb, Reminds me of the School I could see from my house.

View attachment 89258





East Kentwood Public School Logo and Facebook page.





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Students from over 60 countries graduate from East Kentwood High School

East Kentwood's graduation ceremony showcased its diversity.

KENTWOOD, Mich. — East Kentwood High School—one of the biggest schools in West Michigan—graduated 608 students on Friday night.




East Kentwood Principal Omar Bakri did something unique to highlight the school's diversity.

They are saying the school has diversity.

As I was posting this post , I noticed how many African males there are and then all the white female.
This School is Huge,
I did not know how how big it has gottin, but due to a traffic jam one day, I drove in to the driveway and road around the parking lots.

=========

They are saying that a lot of students are taking 6 years to graduate.
Not sure if it due to bad teachers or that the students are getting 2 years of collage level education.


Roufai Tagba chats with East Kentwood Principal Omar Bakri


No One-Size-Fits All Deadline
The district has seen improvements in graduation rates overall, with the four-year rate for all East Kentwood students increasing from 83 percent in 2014 to 88 percent in 2018, according to MI School Data. But after factoring in fifth- and sixth-year graduates, that rate increases to 92.15 and 92.7 percent, respectively.

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Also, these other sports are hard to find photos and dates., So I thought to post more images of the teams.

Even a Ice rink for Hockey. Indoor Olympic size pool, Football stadium, Baseball field, Soccer field, Tennis courts, Track field, Basket ball court.

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East Kentwood hockey team features strong leadership, work ethic.

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Senior defenseman Miles Barnes is part of a crew exhibiting strong leadership skills for the East Kentwood hockey team this winter. (Karen Waite | Advance Newspapers)

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New senior class leads the way for East Kentwood soccer team
Updated Aug 21, 2019; Posted Aug 18, 2018


East Kentwood senior defender Suleiman Isack (14) goes airborne for a header as teammates Ben Cengic (5) and Damir Sabanovic (10) look on. (Greg Chrapek | Advance Newspapers)
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Baseball team 2017
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Aquatic Sports, Indoor Olympic size pool

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Soccer

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Softball

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CCWorks

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Not sure what to say but WOW! what a school.

East Kentwood High School
6230 Kalamazoo Ave Se, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49508 | (616) 698-6700

#3,444 in National Rankings | Overall Score 80.03/100

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It even looks like they have Scuba Diving classes.

This is some real Aquatics Center...



COMPETITION POOL
The 25 yard competition pool and diving board supports competitive water sports at every school and club level. Availability is subject to the athletic calendar.


WARM WATER POOL
Kept between 84 - 86 degrees for children, the arthritic, and elderly

SPLASH POOL
Perfect for small children who love the water, but aren't ready to go deeper.


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It looks like a divider slides back and forth.

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CCWorks

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I joined Egypt Search .com the other day, Interesting forums.

I made a few posts and replied to a few posts, it soon got hot and name calling, complains that I was not on topics, when responding to questions, called a troll, need medical help. :)
Kind of like some you TMF members.

You guys know how forums are, especially if your the new member, poster with other points of view.

It is really old software, hard to use. The member, the lioness, a topic froum moderator was helpful.

Thought I was going to get banned like the Christianity board forum did to me.

I posted a link to this froum from a topic there, that's why I made this post, in topic.


 

CCWorks

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I can not believe the EgyptSearch Forums deleted a post I made on how the pyramids where built.

I was expressing on the forum, of my thought on how the pyramids where built by peoples that knew a lot about natures mathematics.


I shows documentations, there are caves and underground tunnels most do not know about. The caves and carved tunnels where homes for the bugs and the peoples.

I said that bugs built the pyramids like the scarab beetle, hornets or ants.
Humans used pheromones to lure the bugs to do there thing. Their saliva makes a compound like cement, and paper to keep the rocks squared, so cracks do not forum that would make it weak.
They farmed the Nile to harvest something sweet like nectars to feed the bugs.

No racism, no name calling on topic too, they had a video posted, in the video they talked about the pyramids a lot. The only other thing I posted was about the Gaza Sphinx.
I suggested it was a Dog head first. As the head I see today, does not match the rest of the carving in size.
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I also suggested that the Egyptians used Dogs as warriors, so did Rome, and they where the same government. and Egypt changed the face to hide the facts.
All the dragons in Europe are only in Europe legends, are of old legends, tails told, that was forbidding to tell truth. Like the dogs would drag the living kids or dead back to they masters.
Drag or Dragging peoples.

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If you take the wings away, that looks like a Dog.

I was told I could start a new topic by the mail system.
But I seen that mail after I deleted all my postings.

what they deleted was like 4 different posts.
One was my thinking how the pyramids where built.
one was about the sphinx. linked to the war dogs of Egypt and romans.
one was about a fair haired race from south America that was the builders.
But to delete just that one topic, that was just on how I thought nature built the pyramids should not have been deleted.

I put a lot time in that and then it just gong, pissed me off.
 
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CCWorks

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My article about the pyramids being built by bugs with humans guidance, will probably be published by some one that will make a lot of money and they will then be saying who actually built the pyramids and not give credit to the faired hair, light skin South Americans as it was detailed in the article.
They even say Asia was the first world, that is what got me talking.
I said South Americans made the Asians when they mated with Africans.

Looks like some academics are reading our postings.


Topic, I made my posts that got deleted by the forum mod.
 
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CCWorks

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This is real life in the world.


With all the authors in the bible that talk about deceive and deceit.
You have to find, the book is a book non truth, or hidden truth, so you have to decifer the book as it wrightin in code.

So my deleted post hide truths and make me a slave again.
I feel that being of a non published data, my theory of bugs building the pyramids. has then been stolen, this convinces me that I am still a slave, and the white / light skinned races lives under dictatorship for 1000s of years.

In other videos, Dr. Wesey Muhammad said he was told by scholars that the black man is God on earth.

What is said about the forums.


 
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CCWorks

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Have you ever listen to Rush Limbal Show?
Im you loveable host, with talent on lone from God, with half my brain tied behind my back.

Sounds like the word Tie, is Bondage.
And Rush L. is a lead authority on politics.

Abraham Lincoln, Biblical name, GOP (Grand Old Party) Republican (Re make the public)
Lincoln, took a lot of felons out of prison, or they say, Freed a lot of slaves. So what is the real deep swamp of the republican party?

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My post about Asians, on the Egypt search forum, Starts with the peoples from South America, where fair hair, white skin.
If you think a bit, South America is / was all Trees, from coast to coast, and from north to south. The Amazon is so thick with tress, A person does not see direct Sun Light, and the plants are so much in competition to get light, I do not think much sun light reaches the ground.
I think South America was the birth place of the white races. No direct sun light to make melanoma in skin pigmentation. The Aztecs, highly advanced in time, stars, and take credit for the Aztec Calendar. The Aztec sun calendar is a circular stone with pictures representing how the Aztecs measured days, months, and cosmic cycles.

Asians may get sick from air pollution before others as their Ancestors was living in a rich oxygen environment, in the jungles of South America more oxygen then other areas of the world, with very little amounts of air pollution.

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My forum mail. They said they saved my articles, but wont give them back.
My articles, posting on that topic was on topic, they went in to heave supporting details.

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